Russian-born and based in the UK for the last 13 years, Lydia Kavina is currently one of the leading performing musicians on theremin. She studied the theremin under the direction of the inventor Lev Theremin who was her distant relative. Yulia Savikovskaya met with Lydia to talk about her career and interest in this unusual instrument – the theremin.

Yulia Savikovskaya (YS): Lydia, do you remember how you got interested in music? What were your first steps in becoming a musician in Moscow?

Lydia Kavina: I think that many musicians usually start their music lessons in childhood, and this is when their inclination to do it professionally is formed. Often people around them notice a child’s talent, while he or she is not aware of it. Some kids might have this kind of determination – ‘I will become a musician’, but more often it is formed gradually. Therefore, the way the family considers relative importance of musical education is fundamental in most cases for formation of musicians.  When I was little, my sister, who was 8 years older, studied the violin. I heard the sound of violin in our house since my early age. And then the teacher in the kindergarten told my mother that I should study music, and so she brought me to a free Soviet music school and signed me up. My mother’s influence on me was enourmous: she was a very musical person, played the piano and even studied singing at the Conservatory for one year. She became my first music guide and taught me to play my first songs. She noticed that I started composing, and she helped me in every way, recording those early pieces for me. Then, when my compositions became more complex, she bought a tape recorder for them. But I resisted and didn’t follow this path straight away. The understanding that music was really my vocation came at the age of 17-18, when I was already studying at a music college.

Lydia Kavina and Lev Theremin

YS: At what stage did you realise that music as means of expression differs from other types of art for you? Why was it music that was channeling your emotions and states of mind?

Lydia Kavina: I don’t master other types of art: I can’t draw or write poetry. Other artists often have multiple talents. But in my case music was the only creative activity that I was good at. Most musician do what they do not only because they like to make music at home, but also because they like to convey music to others, to see how it reaches the audiences. This interaction is very important. You play something and people like it. And this supports you, you realise that you are not doing this for nothing, you want to do it again.

YS: Please describe your years at the Conservatory. What was fundamental during these years for your future career? When did you start to play theremin?

Lydia Kavina: The theremin appeared in my life quite early and has always developed in parallel with my musical education. Lev Sergeyevich Theremin started teaching me to play the instrument he invented when I was about 9 years old. So, playing theremin, composition, and learning to play piano at music school were three musical paths that I developed in parallel. I had an interest in composition, so I began to study music theory at a music college. At the same time, I began performing with the Orchestra of Electronic Musical Instruments of the Soviet Radio and Television under the direction of Vyacheslav Meshcherin. It was a very important stage experience for me. Later, at the Conservatory, my studies continued at the Faculty of theory and composition.

Orchestra of electronic music instruments, 1983

YS: Do you have childhood memories of Lev Theremin? How did your classes go? Was this instrument rare and exceptional at that time? Or had it already conquered musicians and the world? Were you one of the first ones among Lev’s students?

Lydia Kavina:  Indeed, the situation was very different from today. Lev Sergeyevich was my relative and of course, often visited our family, and I naturally knew him personally. He was a very charming man. His qualities included modesty, extreme delicacy, and a very kind attitude to people. When Lev Sergeyevich taught me, he was already over 80. However, he was very healthy and looked much younger than his age. In his 80s he used stairs in the building and danced at all sorts of youth parties. He didn’t act like an old man at all. And that is what I always admired about him. He was a life-long role model for me. In addition, he was always able to make communication easy by making little jokes. He was also a very romantic man. This youthful romanticism remained with him. This was especially evident in his gaze that was full of light, enthusiasm and admiration.

YS: Did he have this gift of admiring the world as a child?

Lydia Kavina: Absolutely. And first of all, he was an inventor who always had some new ideas in his head. Many of his ideas were incomprehensible at the time, but now they have become everyday, normal things. But forty years ago many people considered them to be «just some old man’s fantasies». In Soviet times it was quite difficult for engineers and inventors to promote their inventions, and it was the same for Theremin. To make things worse there were no basic parts, necessary tools and materials. And, of course, there was a fierce rigidity in relation to everything new, to inventors, in general. It was especially difficult for Lev Sergeyevich because of his age. The attitude was: «What are these fantasies? What does he want? Let the old man just finish his days in quiet», especially as all his ideas were far ahead of his time.

Lev Theremin, and his invention – open lamps

YS: Are you referring to a theremin here or some other inventions?

Lydia Kavina: Theremin didn’t just invent the theremin. He was constantly having new inventions in his head that he was trying to promote. Very rarely some people understood and supported him: among those were Bulat Galeev, Director of the Institute of Light Music in Kazan and Sergey Mikhailovich Zorin, Founder of the Optical Theatre in Moscow. Of course, they had to deal with the bureaucracy in the Soviet Union at that time. In the USSR all innovations, in art as well, were declared as channels of harm from the West – for instance, electronic music studios were closing at that period.

YS: It was in the 70s and 80s, when Sergey Kuryokhin and Boris Grebenshchikov started their careers, right?

Lydia Kavina: They were still quite underground. I’m talking about the mid-70s when my theremin training began. My parents did their best to help Theremin in every way and were trying to find a room for Lev Sergeyevich where he could develop his electronic inventions. My father also made some wooden parts for Theremin’s instruments. This was how I grew attached to Theremin – I saw how my parents treated him.

YS: And how many students did Lev Theremin have at that time?

Lydia Kavina:  Theremin had no students at that time except for his own daughters, Elena and Natalia. He had almost no other students, although he was always happy to show others how to play the theremin. But people’s interest in learning this instrument was usually short-lived.

YS: However, you remained his student.

Lydia Kavina: Yes, I was one of his regular students at that time. Later, when I was studying at the Music College, a circle of theremin players was formed there – my mother initiated it – and Lev Sergeyevich began to regularly teach new students. This was in 1985-1986.

YS: Can you please describe what makes this instrument unique. What new elements does it bring to the world of music?

Lydia Kavina: On the one hand, the theremin started the era of electronic musical instruments in general. On the other hand, the theremin is still unique in the way it is played. Its principle of sound extraction is free movement, without touching anything with your hands. For a musician this means a completely new mentality of playing the instrument. With other traditional musical instruments things have to be memorized mechanically and physically. Through pressing a combination of buttons, a musician hears the melody he or she is able to produce, and then it starts to sound in his head. With the theremin, a completely different approach is used: you first hear the melody in your head and imagine the sound, and then you start looking for it in this space in front of you – in the air. Without forming a music image in your head you actually can’t figure out what you’re looking for because there is no other reference point for finding this note other than your own inner hearing. The sound must be found by ear and intuition. This is a completely new way of communicating with an electronic device as you do not need to click on anything. This type of communication with objects has begun to appear only in the XXI century. For example, we approach doors, and they open simply when we approach them, or with sensors in restrooms – moving your hand to get water. This intuitive control of devices has appeared only recently. We start moving our hand not knowing exactly how exactly it will work. We intuitively try to find the right movement and the distance when the device responds. We move the computer mouse also instinctively – we move until we get to the right place and then we stop.

Lydia Kavina, 1982

YS: To play the theremin you need experience, is that correct? You move intuitively, but through practice you already know what exact sound will occur.

Lydia Kavina: With the theremin, as with any musical instrument, you need time to learn to play it. My point is that forty years ago, when I started learning to play it, it was completely unclear how you could control something without touching anything. There were no such devices in existence. There were buttons, there were levers, all of them required physical contact. There were no devices that worked at a distance. And so it was all very new, and for a long, long time it was unusual for musicians who wanted to start playing it. Now people are psychologically prepared for this technique because we communicate with all the devices that we need to control by intuition. And the theremin is now also much easier to master.

YS: How did the theremin gradually become part of the world repertoire and what pieces have you been playing?

Lydia Kavina: It was a very interesting process. When the theremin was invented, there was no new music written for it at first. And I still wanted to play it, so I played existing music, mostly vocal and the repertoire for cello and violin. First of all, Lev Sergeyevich Theremin himself did it very well – he was an educated cellist, among other things, and he had a great musical sense and taste. He played the theremin very beautifully, with such noble expressiveness, in the spirit of that time, maybe a little too sentimental for today, but this was the style at the beginning of the XX century. So some classical pieces thanks to Lev Theremin, have entered the repertoire of the theremin, with Rachmaninoff’s romances and “The Swan” by Saint-Saens’s being favorite pieces for all theremin players. I believe that “The Swan”, when performed well, sounds better on theremin because the sound is clear, soaring, endless, without a tinge of creaking that is characteristic for strings.

Theremin and Cello

YS: But the world still needed works that were initially composed for theremin performers?

Lydia Kavina: Indeed, and such works began to appear soon enough. First of all, there was a “Symphonic Mystery” by Andrey Pashchenko. In 1923 Lev Sergeevich performed it as a soloist on the theremin with the Petrograd Philharmonic orchestra. Then in 1929 the First Aerophonic Suite for theremin with the orchestra was composed by Joseph Schillinger, with Lev Theremin being its first performer. If for Andrei Pashchenko the theremin was one of the orchestral instruments, for Schillinger it became a soloist. Schillinger emigrated after the Revolution to the USA, wrote several works for the theremin and was a very active participant of the Studio organised by Lev Theremin in New York.

YS: Did Lev Theremin remain the only theremin performer for a long time?

Lydia Kavina: Yes and no. He was the main performer on the instrument for the first decade, but he began to have students early, and one of them, Konstantin Kovalsky, began playing it from the beginning of the 20s. They even played in a duet: Theremin and Kovalsky. Then Lev Theremin went abroad for a long time, so Kovalsky was the main theremin player during most of the Soviet era. Kovalsky played, in particular, in all Soviet film music, in the first sound films. For example, he performed Gavriil Popov’s music for one of the first sound films in Russia «Komsomol is the leader of electrification» in 1932. Also he performed in sound films with Shostakovich’s music, radio plays, music for Soviet cartoons. Kovalsky played on a slightly different theremin model than the one we know, which had only one antenna regulating the pitch of the sound while its volume was regulated by a foot pedal, and you had to use the left hand to switch on the sound. These two versions of the theremin developed in parallel. While Konstantin Kovalsky continued to play on the single-antenna model of the theremin, Lev Theremin himself soon abandoned this version and improved the two-antenna theremin, so that during playing he did not have to touch anything at all.

YS: After Schillinger, what were other milestones in the history of the instrument?

Lydia Kavina:  Schillinger’s work marked the beginning of the theremin’s time in America. There he opened a studio and had new students, as he himself put it “twenty black and twenty white ones”. And among them, the most remarkable was Clara Rockmore. She was born in Riga, and studied at the St. Petersburg Conservatory from the age of five. She was a child prodigy, started her concert career as a violinist, and went abroad, performing all over Europe. During the Revolution she left Russia and settled in New York where she met Lev Sergeyevich. Clara was a great virtuoso of the theremin. Moreover, she motivated Lev Theremin for technical development of his instrument so that he made it more professional, with a more beautiful timbre, a wider range and more responsive to movements. Lev Theremin was absolutely in love with Clara. He was able to implement the required innovations and achieve significant development of his instrument through their collaboration. It was for Clara Rockmore that the most striking work of the time was written, the “Concerto for Theremin” and Orchestra” by Anis Fuleihan. This is a very virtuosic work, and Clara performed it quite brilliantly with an orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowsky. Clara was a world-class theremin star, and it is difficult to overestimate her importance, not only because she contributed to the technical development of the instrument, but also because she developed the technique of playing the theremin. She developed the finger technique with active use of the wrist. Also she had a very convincing interpretation of the works she played. When her performances were shown on video at the end of the 20th century, they greatly contributed to the renaissance of the theremin, as people wanted to copy her style.

Clara Rockmore with RCA Theremin

YS: And what works for the theremin appeared at the end of XX century?

Lydia Kavina:  So many works exist now that I cannot name them all. But even in the middle of XX century such compositions were still rare. For example, John Cage experimented with the theremin. He asked Robert Moog to make a theremin with wide-spaced antennas so that he could move around the stage, create a performance. Alfred Schnittke used the theremin in several of his works, although his interest in electronic music was short-lived. I don’t think I’m exaggerating too much when I say that the renaissance and the development of a new compositional style for theremin began when I started performing, in my teenage years. The first of the works from this period was a Symphonic Suite for Theremin and Orchestra and “Vietnamese Album” composed by Tatyana Nazarova-Metner. I think that this was the beginning of a new, modern wave of works for the theremin. Then I started asking other composers to write for me. I myself also wrote new works, but I wrote in my own style, while as a performer I was interested in diversity, and so I kept commissioning new works to my composer friends. I was a professional musician who was interested in forming and expanding the instrument’s repertoire, and I could test composers’ ideas and experiment in my performances.

YS: Could you describe your life as a professional theremin player today?

Lydia Kavina:  I try to cover as many different types of music as possible. I’m interested in the theremin because it always opens up something new for me. I never refuse to play new things. I am interested in music for movies, jazz, new classical music, installations and experimental performances. My main specialization has been in theatre and opera music, classical and modern academic music. In theatre my first experience was exceptionally important that advanced my career immensely. In 1992 I performed at Talia Theater (Hamburg) in the musical «Alice in Wonderland» by Tom Waits and Robert Wilson. It was an interesting experience as the theremin in that musical served as a link between the orchestra pit and the stage. I was raised above the orchestra pit so that the audience could see me better, as here the visual effect was very important. My lyrical melodies, dashing glissandos, various howls imitated by theremin, chirping of a bird, the hooting of a bass – all this fitted very well into the theatrical performance. Theremin has a large range of sounds which is important for theatre where it is necessary to portray a lot of different emotions and effects. For me it was also the beginning of an international career, as after it I started performing in different countries.

Lydia Kavina performing Scarborow

YS: I know that you also performed in an opera in Mexico.

Lydia Kavina: Yes, it was a very interesting production of “La Voix Humaine” by Poulenc in Mexico. Another highlight was “The Little Mermaid”, a ballet by John Neumeier with music by Lera Auerbach. This ballet was a huge success and remained in the repertoire of several theaters, including the  Musical Theatre of Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko in Moscow. It remained in Hamburg Theatre’s repertoire for 12 years. I performed in most of its performances, starting with the premiere in Copenhagen in 2005, in almost all the performances in Hamburg for 12 years, and also in Beijing.

YS: Who are the the leading theremin players today?

Lydia Kavina: They are very talented students of mine: Olesya Rostovskaya in Russia and Carolina Eyck in Germany, who is now the leading performer on the  theremin in the world.

YS: Do you still have opportunities for teaching theremin?

Lydia Kavina: When you perform, people tend to ask about the nature of the theremin, which remains mysterious, so an element of enlightenment is always necessary. I have been teaching the theremin since 1986, and I had groups and individual students, was giving lectures and educational concerts. I should say that Lev Sergeyevich Theremin himself started this genre of theremin performance that was a lecture-concert that provided knowledge about the instrument. This genre is still actively maintained.

Lydia Kavina running a master-class

YS:  What can the theremin give a musician in terms of understanding his or her place in the world and new musical sensations?

Lydia Kavina: Here I see two directions for the development of the theremin. On the one hand, it is still exciting to use it in its classic version, as its voice and its sound captivate and touch people. It has an extremely flexible and emotional sound that is similar to that of a violin and reaches the soul, goes straight to the heart. In its classic version it has become slightly conservative, but it is still interesting to listen to it when it is well played. The theremin is a bridge between traditional instruments and electronic ones. As a traditional instrument, it is very sensitive and should be played sensitively. It is important how you express your soul through it – which is not a valid concept when you play a synthesiser.

YS:  So the thererim serves as a channel of the performer’s soul…

Lydia Kavina: Yes, the performance of different artists will be very different, because everyone’s musical vision is different. Here it holds the middle ground between violinists and vocalists. If we hear several violinists in a recording, sometimes we cannot distinguish them, as a lot of things are similar. With vocalists we tend to quickly recognize the voice as each performer has its own timbre, interpretation and personal psychology. And here the degree of theremin’s diversity in the hands of different instrumentalists is somewhere in the middle. It is more diverse than the violin, but not as distinctive as vocal performances, but there is still an enourmous range of self-expression. The timbre may be more powerful than the violin or the voice, but thanks to the way we play, the movement of our hands in space, the sound becomes so penetrating and at the same time so elusive that you always try to catch it with your ear. The theremin is always slightly insecure, a little unpredictable, unstable, similar to human psyche. Also those who like the theremin listen to it because it keeps their attention, it doesn’t let go, it is a powerful solo instrument.

Lydia Kavina performing

YS: To some extent, in order to listen to it, you need fantasy, is that correct?

Lydia Kavina: Yes, a listener begins to sharpen his hearing and listen to the sound. The theremin synchronizes your inner and outer hearing, and they are further enhanced by visual perception. When you can trace a change in sound through the movement of the hand, you are directly magnetised by the process. You can see how the melody changes through following the movements of performer’s hands. This relationship creates magic, and this is unique for perception of theremin. Here we could compare the effect to conductor’s movements. We always follow the hands of the conductor even though he or she doesn’t play. But as we hear how the music changes and see his or her movements, we instinctively relate these movements to the music. And in contrast, for example, with a synthesiser just pressing one key creates a whole sea of sounds. And it may not impress you at all, because you don’t understand and don’t visually follow how it happened. There is no relationship between movement and sound here.

YS: At the same time, the theremin is an electronic instrument, so unlike traditional instruments, it can also create some unearthly, frightening, otherworldly, alien sounds.

Lydia Kavina: As technology is developing in this direction, there are already a lot of theremin performances where its basic methods are being implemented through a variety of new technical methods, and the results may be quite different. For example, you can use not only electromagnetic field in the performance, but also infra-light sensors, and their result may not necessarily be a sound. We can control different synthesised sounds to change the light in the room with our movements during a performance. You can use an antenna to control not only sound, but also, for example, a computer program that changes the color scheme on the screen or regulates appearance of different images on a huge display. I believe that it was theremin that gave momentum to augmented reality technologies.

YS: How do you see the instrument’s future in the next few decades? What are you trying to develop with your own performances?

Lydia Kavina:  Well, first of all, it is very nice to see that the number of people who are playing theremin is growing exponentially. Therefore, everyone who begins to play theremin brings something unique and individual, developing it in their own area of specialization. Jazz musicians find new performing techniques to play jazz improvisations on it. Electronic engineers immediately begin to connect theremin to different analog synthesisers and create new sounds. The variety of theremin’s repertoire is literally bubbling and will continue to develop. On the other hand, development of the theremin as a controller for various other phenomena in art is also happening fast. It involves the principle of space control for creating new works of art. It could control pictures, light, video, smells – and Lev Theremin was envisioning all this at the beginning of XX century. You can read his posters of the 1920s where he talks about the possibility of synthesizing music and color, music and touch, music and smell. He explained and even demonstrated how to do it. For example, the sound associated with a touch – the sound of a theremin can be connected to a device that will move material in the armrests of the audiences’ seats. Or, for example, a sense of smell – accordingly, different smells can fill the auditorium. Music and light – Theremin created an Illuminovox where a light projector was controlled by the sound of the theremin. The colour of the screen behind the performer was changing gradually depending on the range of notes played – from red in the bass to blue in the upper register. Theremin was a a practical researcher, a pioneer of light and music technology.

YS: Are there modern visionaries in this area?

Lydia Kavina:  Yes, for example, Andrey Smirnov has started the Theremin Center in Moscow and has restored many of Lev Theremin’s instruments – he continues to develop many of his creative ideas. In Europe, there is Coralie Ehinger who lives in Switzerland and experiments a lot with connecting theremin to a variety of devices and computer programmes. While playing theremin, she supplements performances with a variety of sounds, a conversation of video frames. And in the United States there is Randy George who lives in Los Angeles. He has created a software programme Midi Merlin that allows you to play theremin and control a variety of computer programs. Theremin antenna serves as a sensor, a method of control.


Lydia studied piano and holds a degree in music theory and composition from the Moscow Conservatory. Lydia worked for many theatre productions, among them: ballet “The Little Mermaid” by Lera Auerbach and John Neumeier, in Copenhagen, Hamburg and Beijing (2005-2018), music drama “The Tragedy of a Friendship” by Moritz Eggert and Jan Fabre, dedicated to R. Wagner’s anniversary (Gent, 2013), opera “Baehlamms Fest” by Olga Neuwirth in Vienna, Hamburg and Luzern (1999-2002), musicals “Alice” and “Black Rider” by Tom Waits and Robert Wilson in Hamburg and Cologne  (1992-1998).

As a solo performer Kavina appeared in such projects as “The Sound of Hitchcock” with the BBC SSO in Glasgow in 2015, “Tim Burton and Danny Elfman’s show” with BBC Concert Orchestra and London Symphony at London Royal Albert Hall and in the UK tour 2013-2014, 4th Symphony by Charles Ives, under Kent Nagano (Hamburg and Zurich, 2018-2019), “The Film Music of Howard Shore” with Pittsburgh Symphony and Orquesta Sinfonica de Tenerife (2016), “Testament” by Nicolai Obouhov with Netherlands Radio Orchestra under Reinbert de Lewes in 2006, First Symphony by Lera Auerbach with Duesseldorf Philharminica in 2006 , “Jeanne d’Arc au Bucher” by Arthur Honegger with National Philharmonic Orchestra of Russia under Vladimir Spivakov in 2005, Big Theremin concert with Orchestra SOSPESSO at New York Lincoln Center Festival in 2000. Lydia is an active promoter of new experimental music for the theremin and she is a composer herself. Kavina‘s Concerto for Theremin and Symphony Orchestra was first performed by the Boston Modern Orchestra, under Gil Rose in 1997.